The Federal Government amassed voluminous amounts of evidence showing that many other individuals, in addition to Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, were involved in the implementation of the bombing. Those individuals were named by the Federal Government in indictments and in both Federal trials, as "Others Unknown," but were conveniently culled out by Federal prosecutors. The information in this chapter was obtained from actual government documents, the findings of private investigators hired by OKBIC, and from eyewitnesses. For purposes of this summary, sources are not quoted herein and some individuals are indicated by initials only.

Immediately after the bombing, reports surfaced of Middle-Easterners in the area of the Murrah Building just prior to, or after the explosion. [See Chapter, "The Eyewitnesses"]. Fifteen hours after the bombing, the FBI deployed Arab linguists throughout the country. Their aim was to interpret wiretaps and eavesdrop on live conversations. After the bombing, they remained on duty to monitor wiretaps of radical fundamentalist Islamic groups in an effort to protect President Clinton when he attended the Memorial Service in Oklahoma City on 23 April.

A downtown Oklahoma City business owner reported seeing FBI and DEA agents retrieving documents that were flying out of the Murrah Building immediately after the bombing. He also saw a man wearing an FBI jacket talking on a pay phone in front of his business, using a Middle-Eastern dialect. The following day, he saw one or two other FBI agents using the phone and talking in Arabic.

It is not known if there is actually a connection between the bombing and this eavesdropping activity. However, the Government released thousands of documents to Timothy McVeigh's defense team which included references to a spying operation and to an assassination plot by Islamic extremists.

Terry Nichols frequently visited the Philippines where he possibly developed connections with Arabs.

From 1990 to 1995, Nichols visited the Philippines frequently, ostensibly to visit his mail-order bride, who, at one point, lived in a boarding house where Muslim students from the Philippine island of Mindanao resided. The island is home to more than 500 radical Muslim fighters. Even when she no longer lived there, phone records show that Nichols made more than a dozen phone calls to the boarding house. Her father reported that he had seen Nichols in the possession of a book on the topic of building bombs.

While it may seem inconceivable that "Others Unknown" may include Middle Eastern extremists, white separatists, German, Russian, and Japanese extremists, it is a fact that very often, cooperation among these groups occurs. The one common thread among them is their hatred for the United States Government and for the Jews.

The Stockholm Revisionist Historian Conference, held in Sweden in November 1992 is an example of how these diverse groups come together for a common cause. The movement disputes many historical facts, such as the existence of the Holocaust. The Conference was attended by numerous Nazi and Neo-Nazi figures, members of two Arab extremist groups, Japanese extremists, and a Russian extremist group.

Nazi-Middle East collaborations date back to at least World War II.
After the war, former Major General Ernest Rhemer fled Germany to settle in the Middle East where he established intelligence operations for several Arab emirates. Rhemer is prominent in the revisionist movement.

A Swiss Nazi has masterminded several airplane hijackings by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

A former Nazi was convicted in German in July 1994 for trading nuclear and SCUD rocket detonation technology to Iraq.

A former Nazi scientist assisted in recruiting former Nazi and East German
scientists to work on Libyan and Iraqi chemical weapons projects.

In the 1980's, a Neo-Nazi, financed by a terrorist organization founded by
Yassir Arafat, attacked several U.S. military installations in Germany
with bombs.

There are numerous documented instances where militant Neo-Nazi members are also members of the PLO or the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

U.S. involvement in the Gulf War generated great hostility among Neo-Nazis. For example, the head of the Anti-Zionist Legion in Germany organized campaigns for Saddam Hussein during the war; this individual has connections with the attorney for Andrew Strassmeir and numerous other militant individuals and organizations.

After the Gulf War, Iraqi prisoners were resettled in the U.S., and there
are scores of Middle-Eastern students attending U.S. colleges and
universities. The University of Oklahoma has one of the largest Arab
populations. While many of these Middle-Easterners are law-abiding
citizens and visitors, it is likely that some are "plants" from
government-sanctioned extremist organizations and are prepared to
participate in any terrorist act that their respective countries order.

Timothy McVeigh, Terry Nichols, and Michael Fortier often traveled throughout the country to gun shows where they mixed with white extremists, and they also made contact with various paramilitary groups. One resident of Elohim City was a long-time personal friend of McVeigh's.

It is possible that there were ties to Russia and the Philippines with regard to the bombing. In late May 1994, CG, an FBI informant, met with two Arabs and several others, one of whom looked like Terry Nichols. He noted that the group represented a variety of backgrounds: Iran, Iraq, Columbia, Ireland and Neo-Nazis, and seemed to have unlimited monetary resources and an elaborate network for smuggling and gathering information on judges and federal buildings.

From January to April 1995, CG reported the activities of the group to the FBI, including a meeting at which terrorists presented architectural drawings of the Murrah Building. CG was assigned to obtain the names and addresses of federal judges. He went to Oklahoma City to assess security and check out the fifth floor of the Murrah Building and a few weeks later, a terrorist informed CG that a federal building would be bombed within the next few weeks. Mexico City is home to one of the largest Soviet consulates in the Western Hemisphere. The Russians are still a viable presence there and continue to employ intelligence officers.

In 1992, MT overheard a conversation between her father, a former Communist official in Mexico City who worked for the PLO, a Palestinian, and a Middle-Easterner in which they discussed a bombing plot to be carried out in the United States. One of the men stated that "Russian officers told us we can probably blame 'American Patriots' and all the stupid stuff with the white supremacists and the neo-Nazis. So we can give two strikes at once." MT explained that "two strikes" was sanctioned by the Communist Party and by certain Arab leaders.

MT's father offered to hire a white male to pose as a neo-Nazi to
participate with his Arab comrades. MT reported that the plan involved
bombing a building in mid-America; it had to be an office building and
children had to be involved because "it was a very important part of the
emotional part of the strike."

Audio tapes made of MT's testimony were stress-analyzed and indicated that she was truthful.

An all-points bulletin (APB) is the initial announcement made on radio frequencies to law enforcement agencies to identify suspects who need to be apprehended.

Immediately after the bombing, an APB was broadcast to be on the alert for a brown Chevrolet pickup truck containing suspects of apparent Middle-Eastern origin. The source of the APB was a woman who, immediately after the bombing, observed two men of Middle-Eastern extraction running from the vicinity of the Murrah Building to a late model Chevrolet pickup truck. Later the same day, the FBI rescinded the APB with no explanation.Why did the FBI rescind the APB if they were still wanting information about John Doe #2 almost a month after the bombing?

Several Mid-Easterners were reported to governmental agencies because of suspicious actions.

AAA, a Jordanian national, departed Oklahoma City on American Airlines two hours after the bombing. Airline employees reported his suspicious behavior to security who notified the Chicago office of the FBI. Upon his arrival in Chicago, AAA was detained and questioned by the FBI and then released and allowed to fly to London, since he had missed his connection to Rome. In London, he was deemed ineligible for re-entry and returned to the United States where he was again interrogated and released.

His luggage continued on the original flight to Rome where Italian
officials searched it and found multiple car radios; a substantial quantity
of shielded and unshielded wire; a small toolkit and other tools consistent
with use for both explosive devices and also for general electronic repair;
blue jogging pants with floral pattern around the neck; black sweatpants;
video cassette recorder; and a solder iron. It is interesting to note that the
jogging suit matched the description given by the original APB witness.

Dr. K has amassed millions of dollars in real estate, and the brown pickup truck described in APBs was seen parked in front of his business. He traveled frequently to Las Vegas, where sources report that he laundered funds for the PLO. Dr. K was introduced to a "couple of white guys" in Las Vegas. Terry Nichols visited his son there on numerous trips and he and McVeigh also occasionally frequented the city. Is it possible they met with Dr. K there?

Dr. K's ex-wife was killed in the Murrah Building bombing. By her death, Dr. K stood to regain a considerable amount of property that he lost in their divorce and which would now go to their daughter, a minor.

HAH, an employee of Dr. K. was identified by an eyewitness as being the driver of the brown pickup truck that had almost hit her in downtown Oklahoma City immediately after the bombing. HAH and AAA were good friends.

On the Saturday before the bombing, HAH was seen with McVeigh drinking beer in a bar in Oklahoma City. HAH denied being in the bar or drinking alcohol because alcohol is forbidden by Muslim law.. However, a police report dated 03 June 1995, shows that he was passed out behind the wheel of a vehicle still in "drive" when officers arrived. He was given a blood-alcohol showing a .21 blood-alcohol concentration. The incident occurred only several hundred yards from the bar HAH claims never to have been in.

A waitress in a bar in downtown Oklahoma City saw McVeigh buying drinks for a man strongly resembling John Doe #2. When shown photos of HAH, she positively identified him as McVeighíís "drinking buddy."

A pickup truck was abandoned in the parking lot of an apartment complex which was identified by an FBI agent as being the brown pickup truck sought in the APB issued on the day of the bombing.

Mr. and Mrs. R lived in an apartment complex where they reported seeing a
yellow pickup truck in the parking lot. It was later determined by the FBI
that it had originally been brown but repainted yellow.

Mrs. R told the FBI that she had seen the driver and he appeared to be "Middle Eastern or whatever." She asked a friend, an art teacher, to sketch a likeness of the man based on her description. The sketch was not of the same individual appearing in the John Doe #2 sketch. Mr. and Mrs. R contacted the FBI to inform them of the sketch but the FBI did not return their call. When the FBI did not contact them, Mr. and Mrs. R contacted the CBS affiliate in Oklahoma City and their story was aired. The broadcaster was subsequently fired, allegedly for using an audiotape from NBC regarding the APB.

From 19 April until 25 April 1995, Mr. and Mrs. R., separately and together, saw the truck numerous times. On 26 July 1995, Mrs. R saw a man driving a car who was the same man she had seen driving the pickup. She wrote down the license plate and had it checked. The car that the tag was on was not the car it was registered to. On the evening of the 25th, it was impounded by the FBI.

In the Writ of Mandamus for Timothy McVeigh's trial, his attorney, Stephen Jones, stated that FBI sources in Washington DC indicated that three males of Middle Eastern origin rented a brown Chevrolet pickup truck at the Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport. Witnesses have reported seeing three men speed away in a brown pickup truck following the bombing.

Following the bombing, a search was initiated for white supremacist conspirators. Twenty days after the bombing, two older men were questioned by the FBI in Carthage, Missouri. Robert Jacks suspects the two men, identified as Gary Allen Land and Robert Jacks had lived across the street from McVeigh in Kingman, Arizona.

McVeigh and Nichols were in the company of a man identifying himself as Robert "Jacks" when they visited the real estate office of WM in Cassville, Missouri. Another realtor in the office, JLD, reported that "Jacks" was the trio's spokesman. The land that WM showed the group on maps was only half a mile from the Branch Davidian compound, a sister organization of the group in Waco, Texas. WM saw photos of Land and Jacks on television and contacted the FBI to report that neither of them were the man who had accompanied Nichols and McVeigh to his office. WM assisted an FBI sketch artist in creating a drawing of the man who had been with McVeigh and Nichols and noted that the man was a young man, rather than an older man, as Lane and Jacks were described. JLD confirmed WM's description, saying that the individual might be "a little bit Hawaiian."

Nichols owned property with an airstrip in Cassville which he leased to a man in Wichita, Kansas. In October 1999, a piece of property across the lake from Nichols' property was sold by a Robert A. Jacques from Wichita.

BW owns a diner in Nichols' hometown, Herington, Kansas. One morning, Nichols, McVeigh, and another man in a Ryder truck came in and ordered coffee. She asked where they were going and the third man answered, "Oklahoma." Since they immediately left without breakfast, she felt that the man had said something that he should not have said. When shown a sketch of a suspect, BW said it was a near resemblance to the third man, who appeared to her to be Hawaiian.

An Odessa, Texas resident, Robert Jacquez died from injuries sustained in an industrial accident. Reportedly, he had been friends with a neighbor of Michael Fortier. The neighbor had lived in Odessa for 18 months following the bombing and he and Jacquez had shared a post office box. Reportedly, a third person shared the post office box. Fortier's neighbor claimed that he never knew Jacquez and does not know the identity of the third person. The neighbor was also a friend of McVeigh's and McVeigh had asked him to drive a getaway car but he declined.

Jacquez had been employed as a roustabout in Odessa; he quit in September 1994. From then until Christmas Eve, his whereabouts could not be corroborated through any public records. That period of time encompasses the timeframe in which Robert "Jacks" was in the realtor's office in Cassville, Missouri. When Jacquez returned to Odessa, he told friends that he had been working as a DEA narcotics informant.

Another Robert Jacks was driving an armored car that made a delivery to the Murrah Building moments before the bombing.

It is believed that the FBI has not shown their sketch of Robert Jacks to any of the eyewitnesses in Kansas or Oklahoma City. The FBI chief investigator of the bombing mandated that all leads regarding Gary Land and Robert Jacques were to be forwarded directly to him and not be filtered by subordinates.

SCG, a former research associate in DNA studies at Cedars-Sinai Research Institute in Los Angeles with a degree in chemistry was arrested on weapons charges on 13 May 1995 in Oatman, Arizona. The site of the arrest was located 20 miles from Kingman, the home of Michael Fortier. When his property was searched, cases of weapons were found, along with stolen medical supplies. He had a laboratory for the manufacture of methamphetamine on his property as well.

SGC claimed to have known McVeigh, under his alias, "Tim Tuttle." An
associate of SCG described him as having anti-government and pro-Nazi

A brown pickup truck with a white camper shell had been parked at SCG's residence. Terry Nichols had parked a similar truck at a storage space in Las Vegas from November 1994 to 18 January 1995. Sightings of a brown pickup truck occurred in Oklahoma City before and after the bombing. A witness saw a brown pickup truck pull over, then pull away, as McVeigh was stopped and arrested by the Highway Patrol.

There were witnesses who stated that SGC was out of town for two or three weeks prior to the bombing. However, SGC's roommate, PSH, stated that he was with him in Oatman, Arizona when the bombing occurred. SGC's employer reported that he was in Los Angeles at the time of the bombing where he was visiting his mother, who had had a stroke.

Elohim City is located near the Oklahoma-Arkansas border consisting of 240 acres of largely undeveloped land; 25 to 30 families live there. Robert Millar is the leader and founder of the white supremacist group, which advocates polygamy and the overthrow of the U.S. government.

Elohim City supposedly has close ties with other extremist groups such as The Covenant, Sword and the Arm of the Lord (CSA), a Christian identity movement. Prior to Millar becoming involved with the CSA, Elohim City did not have weapons. Once the two organizations merged, however, the CSA provided Elohim City with weapons training.

The CSA's second-in-command, Terry Noble, stated that in 1983, the CSA planned to bomb the Murrah Building when their leaders determined it would be the perfect target since it housed many governmental agencies, had little security, and would cause a significant impact because it would not be an expected target. They had planned to use a rocket launcher for the attack.

Exactly 10 years to the day before the actual bombing, the Government raided the CSA at its compound in Arkansas. Millar visited the site to lend moral support, but the compound ultimately surrendered three members, Jim Ellison, Terry Noble, and Richard Snell.

Snell was later convicted of murdering a pawnbroker, whom he thought was Jewish, and a black highway patrolman in Arkansas. He was sentenced to death and later executed on 19 April 1995. Millar urged the government to delay the execution because of the significance of the date. Snell stated that the Governor would regret not changing the date and he warned of a bomb.

The Bridges calling card phone records show that a call was made from a motel in Kingman, Arizona to Elohim City. Millar initially denied that such a call was received; however, when confronted with phone records, he admitted that a call may have been placed to "Andy," a nickname for Andrew Strassmier. Strassmier admitted that he met McVeigh at a gun show . He possibly gave a business card to McVeigh with the phone number for Elohim City on it. The Bridges card shows a call from a motel in Kingman to the Ryder truck rental in Lake Havasu, Arizona on 05 April 1995. Three minutes later the call was made to Elohim City. Later that evening, a call was made to the National Alliance in Mohave Valley, Arizona, followed by six more calls there in the next two days. The National Alliance is an extremist group led by William Pierce, the author of The Turner Diaries, the book characterized by the government as the "blueprint" for the Oklahoma City bombing.

McVeigh has denied ever being in Elohim City. However, in 1993, he
received a traffic ticket 20 miles from the compound on the only road that
leads there. In 1994, he stayed in a motel one-half hour west of Elohim City.

Elohim City has been a temporary home to six individuals charged in a series of bank robberies. Allegedly, the funds derived from the robberies were used to fund activities of the Aryan Revolutionary Army. There has been some speculation that the robberies helped finance the Oklahoma City bombing.

Dennis Mahon, a former Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan and the third person in authority in the White Aryan Resistance Movement, has also resided at Elohim City and was a friend of ATF informant, Carol Howe. Robert Millar became aware that the ATF planned a possible raid of the compound. Reportedly, members within the compound vowed that Elohim City would not become another Waco and that they would strike first in a "Holy War." It became known that the FBI and ATF each had their own informants placed at Elohim City. Because of this duplication of efforts, any planned sting operation was canceled.

The bombing in Oklahoma City proved the validity of Howe's information, and immediately after the explosion, she returned to Elohim City at the behest of the FBI. Howe's usefulness as an informant was terminated once it was learned that she would testify for the defense in McVeigh's trial. Her handler testified later that Howe had warned her of the bombing.

Dennis Mahon, former Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan and leader with the White Aryan Resistance (WAR), referred to the Oklahoma City bombing as, "a fine thing," and has openly proclaimed his hatred for the federal government.

ATF informant Carol Howe reported Mahon discussing the targeting of federal installations and that when she was a guest in Mahon's home in Tulsa, that he received a phone call from Tim Tuttle (McVeigh's alias). Howe saw McVeigh at Elohim City in the company of Peter Ward and Strassmier in July 1994. Mahon and Strassmier visited Oklahoma City in November and December 1994 and again in February 1995. Howe accompanied them on the December 1994 trip.

Howe thought the sketches of John Doe #1 and John Doe #2 looked like brothers, Tony and Peter Ward, both residents of Elohim City. According to Howe, Strassmier was in charge of security and weapons training there.

Mahon made a tape to be delivered through an intermediary to McVeigh after his arrest. The intermediary, however, relinquished the tape to McVeigh's attorney, Stephen Jones. On the tape, Mahon told McVeigh that he was "innocent by reason of entrapment," and that he should accept the sacrifice for the sake of justice. Jones stated that he is not certain how Mahon's message should be interpreted. He does not know if Mahon was telling McVeigh to sacrifice himself for justice, or if the message was a veiled threat against McVeigh's family that if he talked, his family was vulnerable.

Mahon produced several videotapes opposing U.S. policy in Iraq, for which he received monthly allotments from Iraq. He also made several trips to Germany to assist in establishing a chapter of WAR in Stockholm Sweden with the aim of smuggling terrorist information into Germany.

Andrew "Andy" Strassmier is a German national and the grandson of a founder of the Nazi party. His father was the Secretary of State for West Germany and member of the Christian Democratic Coalition. Strassmier was a former lieutenant in Germany's Panzer Grenadiers (similar to the U.S. Special Forces) and trained in military intelligence.

In 1992, Strassmeir went to Elohim City where he assumed the position of Chief of Security in weapons training. His knowledge of weaponry was the most lethal of any other resident of the compound because of his military training.

In late 1993, FBI Director Louis Freeh went to Germany to meet with German internal security officials who told Freeh that Strassmier had been "nation hopping" between Germany and the U.S. They expressed concerns about Strassmier's involvement with the neo-Nazi movement.

Prior to January 1994, 22 banks and armored cars were robbed in seven states; seven of the robberies occurred after the Oklahoma City bombing. An estimated total of $250,000 was stolen over a period of two years. Some people believe that these robberies funded McVeigh's actions pertaining to the bombing.

McVeigh's sister claims that, in December 1994, he asked her to launder an amount of one-dollar bills. Furthermore, he told her that he had been involved in planning a bank robbery, but did not actually participate in it and the money was his share of the proceeds.

The original leaders of the "Bank Bandits," as they were dubbed by the press, were Richard L. "Wild Bill" Guthrie, Jr. and Peter "Commander Pedro" Langan, the son of a CIA employee. Guthrie was arrested on 15 January 1996 with the help of a Government source and with Guthrie's assistance, Langan was arrested three day later. On 11 August, 1996, Langan's attorneys requested that Guthrie be transferred from the Kentucky jail where he was being held, to Ohio, where Langan would be tried. The following day, Guthrie was found hanged in his prison cell.

Mark Thomas, a Pennsylvania native, was a part-time truck driver with an eighth grade education. For over 25 years, he was involved in organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, the Aryan Nation, and the Aryan Republican Army. He was the leader of an extremist organization, the "Posse Comitatus" in Pennsylvania, and he was in Elohim City on Thursday before the bombing. He was arrested in January 1997 for conspiracy and for receiving proceeds from the Midwest bank robberies. The next month he changed his plea from innocent to guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence for his cooperation.

When Mahon learned of Thomas' cooperation with authorities, he publicly stated that he was disappointed that Thomas had "cracked so quickly," and that he had possibly ruined 25 years of development in the Aryan movement. Mahon admitted to sending funds to Thomas' pregnant wife and child.

In February 1997, Kevin McCarthy pled guilty to robbing a Missouri bank and participating in the planning of five other robberies. He cooperated with prosecutors to help convict at least two of his fellow bank robbers: Scott Stedeford and Peter Langan. Stedeford was convicted of bank robbery in an Iowa bank heist.

Michael Brescia was involved in a Wisconsin robbery. His co-conspirators were all arrested and convicted. Brescia has not been arrested or indicted for any crime. He dropped out of college in his third year and left for Oklahoma where he told friends he had a job waiting. Actually, he moved to Elohim City where he married Robert Millar's granddaughter.

The day after the bombing, CL, a college student and close friend of McVeigh, informed the FBI that she identified John Doe #2 as Brescia. CL had attended the same parties in Kansas that McVeigh attended. CL's mother recognized Brescia in the sketch and notified the FBI, who ignored her information.

At the time of the bombing, Strassmier claims that Brescia was in Little Rock, Arkansas attending a clemency hearing for Richard Snell. On the day the Ryder truck was rented, Brescia was in Elohim City preparing Snell's grave, according to Robert Millar's daughter.